Typical Reasons for Hair Loss
Alopecia is a kind of hair loss that can either be nonscarring or scarring, meaning that the hair follicles are permanently destroyed.
The most prevalent kind of hair loss, nonscarring alopecia, can be categorized as localized, diffuse, or patterned depending on how the hair is lost.
Read More: Hair Thinning and Hair loss
Patterned Hair Loss: What Is It?
The gradual, symmetric thinning of hair, most noticeable at the front, top, and sides of the scalp, is known as “patterned hair loss.” Both sexes experience hairline thinning in certain regions, but males are more likely to experience a pronounced recession of the hairline. Androgenetic alopecia is the most prevalent kind of patterned hair loss in the world. It is a genetic disorder that develops after puberty and is brought on by exposure to the male sex hormone dihydrotestosterone.
Diffuse Hair Loss: What Is It?
Hair loss that is diffuse occurs when the scalp is completely covered in hair. Telogen effluvium is the most prevalent kind of diffuse hair loss, causing the loss of more than 200 scalp hairs daily. Acute events like severe sickness, major surgery, thyroid disease, pregnancy, iron-insufficiency anemia, malnutrition or abrupt weight loss, or vitamin D deficiency are usually the catalyst for its development. Some drugs (including lithium, valproate, fluoxetine, warfarin, propranolol, retinoids, and isoniazid) or stopping estrogen-containing oral contraceptive pill usage are other causes of telogen effluvium. Usually occurring two to four months following an acute inciting incident, hair shedding stops in six to nine months.
Focal Hair Loss: What Is It?
Patches of hair loss on the scalp, and occasionally on the face and torso, are referred to as focal hair loss. Alopecia areata, an autoimmune illness that often manifests in infancy but can afflict anyone of any age, sex, or race or ethnicity, is the most prevalent kind of localized hair loss. It is linked to autoimmune diseases such type 1 diabetes, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, and asthma. Up to 30% of patients with less severe types of alopecia areata may have spontaneous hair growth.
Nonsurgical Hair Loss Treatments
Some people with androgenetic alopecia have hair growth when they apply topical minoxidil foam or solution to the scalp’s afflicted regions. Moreover, hair regrowth or a slowdown in hair loss may result by taking an oral drug called finasteride, which prevents the synthesis of dihydrotestosterone. However, those who are capable of getting pregnant shouldn’t use this medication since it may result in fetal defects. Hair density may also be increased via low-level laser light treatment using equipment that emits red light at a low frequency.
Any treatable underlying cause of telogen effluvium in affected individuals should be addressed (e.g., iron supplements for iron insufficiency, vitamin D supplementation for vitamin D deficiency, thyroid disease management, and stopping medicines that might induce telogen effluvium). Topical minoxidil may help patients with telogen effluvium and patterned hair loss by increasing the density of their regrowing hair.
A corticosteroid medicine injected into patchy regions of hair loss may encourage hair regeneration in cases of alopecia areata. Topical use of corticosteroids, minoxidil, contact irritants (like anthralin), and contact allergens (like diphenylcyclopropenone and squaric acid dibutyl ester) are other therapy options that may be available. People with severe alopecia areata may benefit from a family of oral drugs known as Janus kinase inhibitors.